How plants and animals can survive in subzero environment...... ?

How plants and animals cope in subzero environment.....?

There are many wonderful things in the loving world that surprise you, but you are completely unknown with these things.

In this articles, I will try to familiar with such a type of interesting fact that will shake your mind.

In the biological world, different species of animals, plants, herbs, and shrubs exist, that given termed as Biodiversity. In biodiversity, some animals and few plants are able to survive in a very cooled place where temperature below zero degree Celcius (subzero temp.
), where normal plants and animals including human beings will not survive until few days or a week. 

Do You know? 

How these animals and plants survive in this extreme condition means subzero temperature?

If yes, then how plants and animals make it possible? or any mechanism involved in it to make it possible?  We shall learn it below:

All livings things are required to carbohydrate, protein, and fat  (Breakdown of food particles in the presence of oxygen called respiration) to provide energy to the body. and these all things occur in the Mitochondria of the cell.

But some protein performs a specific function like catalyzing metabolic reaction, replication of DNA, Transportation of molecules along with the concentration (Facilitated diffusion) and growth etc. Protein like actin/myosin are involved in muscles movement, hormone(Insulin), Thyroxine are involved in the co-ordination of the body system, Globulin that is protected from foreign pathogen etc. Such that special protein plants or animals have that resist to cold called Antifreeze protein (AFPs)

These antifreeze protein are cysteine-rich globular protein containing five disulfide bond called antifreeze glycoprotein  (AFGPs). that provide survival mechanism by lower the freezing point of water as well as preventing the growth of ice recrystallisation in an organism that is living in the subzero environment.

Antifreeze protein are present in blood serum of the animals  like (Insect, Arthropoda and fish) while in plants these are present in the apoplast( Transportation of the water molecules with mineral nutrients through the intercellular spaces of the cell) of the leaves

What happens if crystallization will occur in plants and animals? 

Crystallization is the natural process in which liquid material converted into the solid. If crystallization is occurring in the plants means plants will not uses of proper oxygen for respiration because liquid water contain oxygen but that solidify cause water stress like condition will be developed in plants and leaves will start to curl due to this plants may die after permanent wilting of leaves. If plants having AFPs protein that starts to the recrystallisation in plants just after crystallization cause liquid material remains in liquid form.

While in animal, crystallization is occurring then liquid material (blood) start to forming ice crystal i.e solid. and the heart is not properly pumping the blood in the body means heart function will slow. cause body appearance changes into pale yellow or bluish in colour, and maybe finally animal candied. Animals having AFPs protein that resist to crystallization.

What is the mechanism of recrystallisation that helps to survive in extreme condition?

 Recrystallisation is the process in which growth of ice crystals during crystallization is converted into its natural state. Especially freeze tolerant organisms which have to manage  ice crystal by the process of recrystallisation. In the process of recrystallisation AFPs proteins plays a major role in recrystallisation. These protein is start to bind to small ice crystals to inhibit the growth  ( i.e inhibit liquid material to solidify) and recrystallisation occur. 


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